On May 18, the Bank of England released a staff working paper, laying out various scenarios of possible risks and financial stability issues of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs).
The paper constructs three models of CBDC depending on the sectors that have access to CBDC, from a narrow CBDC where access is limited to banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), to direct and indirect access extended to households and non-financial firms.
The Financial Institutions Access model is limited to banks and NBFIs, where financial institutions can interact directly with the central bank to purchase and sell CBDC in exchange for eligible securities. Financial institutions are not supposed to provide an asset to households and firms, which are entirely backed by central bank money.
The Economy-wide Access model assumes that access to CBDCs is granted to banks and NBFIs, households and firms. In this way, a CBDC can serve as money for all agents in the economy. While only banks and NBFIs can interact directly with the central bank to buy and sell CBDCs, the report says that “households and firms must use a CBDC Exchange to buy and sell CBDC in exchange for deposits.”